The History of Uzbekistan
The history of Uzbekistan is saturated with bright, significant events that go back centuries.
This is a truly ancient land. This is evidenced by archaeological finds and burial sites of the Paleolithic era, found throughout the territory of Uzbekistan. They are especially numerous in the regions of Bukhara and Fergana. Everything says that the area was densely populated. It was here that one of the oldest and most powerful civilizations was formed, under the influence of which a huge territory fell. From the ocean to the ocean.
The abundance of natural resources and the temperate climate contributed to the well-being of this area. Ancient settlers, mainly engaged in livestock breeding and farming. Even then, this prosperous land attracted conquerors. Frequent raids of the Aryan tribes from the west, culminated in the conquest of the region for centuries. This troubled time, has become a kind of a starting point for centuries of struggle for domination over the territory.
Khorezm. This very influential and vast state arose in the Bronze Age. The government managed to subordinate and control a vast territory - in fact all of Central Asia. However, later civilization, Sogdiana, formed part of the Persian state under extremely unfavorable conditions.
The Persian Empire slowly but surely weakened. It became increasingly difficult to regulate the situation, it was during this period that the territory of the future of Uzbekistan was conquered by a truly powerful conqueror. In ancient Samarkand, the winner was Alexander the Great. The popular resistance, which lasted almost three years, was suppressed. Leader of resistance Spitalen was treacherously killed, a new era has come. This time is marked by the flourishing of Khorezm. The prosperity grew rapidly, culture, craft and art were formed.
The death of Alexander the Great caused the breakdown of a powerful state. Formed small states that waged incessant internecine wars. Chaotic management, disunity did not remain without attention from the nomadic tribe of the Kushans. Conquering the weakened is a matter of time. Soon, Sogdiana and Khorezm, parts of Northern India and Afghanistan began to be called the Kushan kingdom, and the main religion was Buddhism.
It was during this period that the Great Silk Road began to form. Samarkand, Khiva and Bukhara became major trading centers. The number of artisans increased rapidly, production flourished. The decline of the Kushan kingdom attracted new conquerors. It was time for the Arabs to conquer this land. The territory between the Amudarya and the Syrdarya River was named Maverannahr. The inhabitants of Sogdiana and Khorezm were converted to Islam, and the insurrections were brutally suppressed. Culture and economics were oppressed, the region took a long time to regain the lost ground.
The unstable situation, the centers of bloody wars turned Maverannahr into easy prey. The hour of the most bloody and destructive invasion has come. The region was conquered and almost destroyed by the Mongols, led by Genghis Khan. It was a disaster. Destroyed buildings, gardens were cut down, blossoming oases were burned. The inhabitants of Bukhara and Samarkand were driven into slavery.
Heirs of Genghis Khan could not retain power in the territories that he inherited. The struggle for power, armed conflicts led to the actual devastation of the region. It's time for a new ruler.
A brilliant commander, an outstanding strategist, Amir Timur, managed to unite the lands and created the greatest empire with the capital in Samarkand. Majestic buildings were built, which have survived to this day and attract tourists from all over the world. The time of flourishing of trade and crafts, art and culture has come. The invincible empire stretched from China to Asia Minor, the region was ruled by an iron order, all the uprisings were brutally suppressed.
The death of Amir Timur was the beginning of the slowly collapse of the empire. The inheritors could not keep the power and Samarkand, together with the entire Mawarannahr, plunged into the abyss of wars and suffering. The endless change of rulers, the loss of control over the territories led to the formation of three khanates - Bukhara, Khiva and Kokand. During this period, the region falls into the zone of attention of the Russian Empire.
The entry of troops into the territory ended with the conquest of a significant part of Central Asia. On the territory, the Turkestan Governor General was formed with the capital in Tashkent. The years passed, Central Asian republics were formed, which became part of the USSR and only in 1991 Uzbekistan gained independence. It's time for a new story.